Indian Council of Agricultural Research


Stomopneulactone D from long-spined sea urchin Stomopneustes variolaris

Cyclooxygenase-2 is one of the prominent enzymes to cause an increased production of prostaglandins during inflammation and immune responses. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is up-regulated in inflammatory conditions owing to the induction by different inflammatory stimuli including cytokines, and therefore, the expression studies of cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage cells (RAW 264.7 cell line) could be used for screening of the compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of four homologous stomopneulactones A-D, classified under the class of macrocyclic lactones isolated from the solvent extract of the long-spined sea urchin Stomopneustes variolaris (family Stomopneustidae) in the lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages. The structures of these isolated compounds were assigned using detailed spectroscopic techniques. Stomopneulactone D bearing 5-butyl-4-hydroxy- 12-oxo-1-oxa-5,9-cyclododecadienyl moiety exhibited relatively greater anti-inflammatory potentials against cyclooxygenase-2 (IC50 ~ 2 mM) and 5-lipoxygenase (IC50 2.6 mM) than those displayed by other macrocyclic lactones. The studied compounds displayed higher selectivity index values (anti-cyclooxygenase- 1IC50/anti-cyclooxygenase-2IC50 > 1), which designated the selective anti-inflammatory potentials of the macrocyclic lactones against inducible inflammatory mediators than those exhibited by the anti-inflammatory agent ibuprofen (0.43). The in silico molecular modelling analyses of the stomopneulactones with cyclooxygenase- 2/5-lipoxygenase enzymes recorded lowest binding energy (?7.71 and ?9.60 kcal mol?1, respectively) and docking score (?8.82 and ?11.12 kcal mol?1, respectively) for stomopneulactone D along with its higher electronic parameter (topological polar surface area of 72.83), which further confirmed its greater antiinflammatory potential than other compounds in the series. Stomopneulactone D also inhibited the generation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, intracellular reactive oxygen species, along with 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase- 2 in the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage cells. Additionally, the studied macrocyclic lactone decreased the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the inflammatory cells in dose-dependent manner, which demonstrated the therapeutic potential of stomopneulactone D in down-regulating the inflammatory pathogenesis.


Economic impact of fluctuations in oilsardine landings in India

The Indian oilsardine Sardinella longiceps  (Valenciennes, 1847) is a significant contributor to the marine fisheries economy of India. The species showed wide fluctuations in landings in the past and during recent years, the decline in landings is an issue of concern for sustainable harvest of the resourcee specially in the context of climate change regime.The paper analysed the economic impacts of fluctuations in oilsardine landings in terms of gross earnings realised at landing centre and retail levels; inflation in the domestic markets and external trade during the 2000-2018 period. The analysis indicated that the decline in landings was more in the state of Kerala as compared to all India landings. The inflation at point of first sales (landing centre level) was more during 2000-09 period whereas at retail market level inflation was highest during 2010-18. The inflationary pressure on domestic consumers in Kerala was more during 2010-18 period. The growth in external trade of sardines was in tune with the Indian oilsardine landings in the country.


Appraisal of penaeid prawn fishery by large mechanized trawlers off Visakhapatnam, SE coast of India

Surge in fishing effort and penaeid prawn catch was recorded during the study period with that of 2006-10. Decline in Catch per Hour (CPH) and penaeid prawn ratio (%) to total fish catch was observed. Penaeid prawns accounted for 15.5% of the sona boat landings. Annually, mean penaeid prawn landings were estimated at 6,184 t. Prawn catch excelled by M. monoceros (20.5%), S. crassicornis (13.7%) and M. barbata (7.8%).


Evaluation of dietary oleoresins on the enhancement of skin coloration and growth in the marine ornamental clown fish

A 60-day feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary oleoresin inclusion on skin colour intensity, carotenoid content, growth performance and digestive enzyme activities of a high value marine ornamental clown fish, A. ocellaris. Experimental diets were formulated with natural oleoresin pigments namely, paprika, turmeric and chlorophyll, with dietary inclusion at the rate of 20 gkg?1 in the diets. Experimental units were set in triplicates with six numbers of fish in each tank and maintained in filtered sea water of 20‰ salinity in a recirculatory system. Clown fish with average initial weight of 150.6 ± 0.10 mg and initial length of 8 mm were fed five different diets viz., control/ basal diet (C), diets with inclusion at the rate of 20 gkg?1 each of paprika (PAP), turmeric (TUR) and chlorophyll (CHL) oleoresins and combination of oleoresins (COM) at the rate of 20 gkg?1. Skin colour intensity in terms of red and yellow hues and total carotenoid levels differed significantly (P < .05) and highest intensity was recorded in fishes fed the PAP, followed by the COM group. Fish fed with the diet containing COM showed significantly higher final body weight, specific growth rate, weight gain % and feed efficiency as compared to other treatments and was followed by the PAP group. The whole body carotenoid content was highest in COM and PAP groups. There were no significant differences (P > .05) with respect to feed efficiency, digestive enzyme activities, viscero somatic index, visceral length index, condition factor and whole body proximate composition among different treatments. These results suggested that the dietary pigments have a direct influence on the skin pigmentation in A. ocellaris without adverse effects on digestive functions and body condition. Colour imparted in fish skin due to paprika oleoresin was found to be superior.


New deep-water species of snake eel, Xyrias anjaalai sp. nov., from the Western Indian Ocean

A new species of snake eel Xyrias anjaalai sp. nov. (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae) is described from morphological analysis of 12 specimens and molecular analysis of four specimens, caught off Kollam, Kerala, southwestern India, by deep-sea trawling. X. anjaalai is distinguished from its congeners by having a large eye diameter, a short snout, a different dentition pattern as in the 3rd row of maxillary teeth beginning at the level of the 4th vomerine tooth between the two existing rows in the inner series of maxillary teeth, an irregular tooth patch for approximately 1/10th of the lateral side of the dental arch in the distal portion and a vertebral count of predorsal vertebrae 18–21, preanal vertebrae 73–76 and total vertebrae 147–149. Phylogenetic relationships of X. anjaalai with other species in Ophichthidae were examined using partial nucleotide sequences of the COI gene (617 bp). The genetic analyses suggest that the new species is closest to X. revulsus followed by Apterichtus klazingai with Kimura 2 parameter (K2P) values of 0.6 and 2.8% respectively. In the phylogenetic reconstruction, sequences of X. anjaalai formed a distinct clade demonstrating their uniqueness as a separate species.


Histomorphology and immunohistochemistry of adenocarcinoma and fibroma in Indian oil sardine

A single specimen of Indian oil sardine Sardinella longiceps was observed with wart-like appearances in three different regions of the fish: one on the premaxillary part, and other two on the skin and at the vent region respectively. Mucosal tissues were expunged and preserved in 10 % neutral phosphate-buffered formalin for histological examination. Based on the histopathological analysis, lesions were identified as adenocarcinoma and fibroma on the premaxillary part and skin, respectively. Based on the immunohistochemistry, vimentin and cytokeratin-like proteins were demonstrated, suggesting that the wart-like extrusions were fibroma and adenocarcinoma respectively.


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