The genus Solenocera Lucas, 1849 consist of 43 species, most with commercial importance and occurring in offshore, deeper waters (Pérez Farfante & Kensley 1997; De Grave & Fransen 2011). Twelve species in the genus Solenocera were reported from India, with a few contributing to the regular fishery (S. crassicornis, S. choprai, and S. hextii), and others seldom captured (S.alfonso, S.alticarinata, S.annectens, S.halli, S.koelbeli, S.melantho, S.pectinata, S.pectinulata and S.waltairensis). Members of the Solenoceridae are identified based on the key taxonomic characters of the genitalia and the cephalothorax. Major taxonomic references on solenocerids include Crosnier (1978, 1989), Perez Farfante (1977), and Dall (1999). Specimens are deposited in the Marine Biodiversity Museum at the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kerala (CMFRI).
This paper undertakes a critical assessment of the present state of fisheries insurance in India. Various factors that contribute to the poor performance of fisheries insurance in the country were identified and ranked based on the responses of fishermen and fish farmers in major maritime states. In the light of the findings, measures such as leveraging the potential of technological interventions, developing innovative institutional mechanisms, bridging the trust deficit amongst the stakeholders and bringing about attitudinal changes through awareness drives are suggested as way forward towards harnessing the potential of insurance as a safety net tool in fisheries sector of India.This paper undertakes a critical assessment of the present state of fisheries insurance in India. Various factors that contribute to the poor performance of fisheries insurance in the country were identified and ranked based on the responses of fishermen and fish farmers in major maritime states. In the light of the findings, measures such as leveraging the potential of technological interventions, developing innovative institutional mechanisms, bridging the trust deficit amongst the stakeholders and bringing about attitudinal changes through awareness drives are suggested as way forward towards harnessing the potential of insurance as a safety net tool in fisheries sector of India.
Bottom trawling in the most effective method of shrimp capture but highly intensive trawling adversely affects benthic ecology and biodiversity. The present study is aimed to throw light on low value bycatch (LVB) landings and catch composition of trawl boats, at Mangaluru fisheries harbour. The quantity of fish landings by single day trawlers (SDT) during 2012-14 was 2 151.3 t y-1, of which 61.8% was considered as edible grade and 38.2% was LVB. Multiday trawlers (MDT) landed an estimated 165917.2 t of fishes/yr, out of which 79.6% were marked for edible use and remaining 20.4% was landed as LVB. LVB to target group ratio for SDT and MDT landings was 1:1.66 and 1:3.93, respectively. The LVB of MDT consisted of 121 finfishes belonging to 82 genera, 55 families and 13 orders. An estimated 47.53% of the finfish LVB landing by weight (56.1% by number) was contributed by juveniles of commercially important species and the estimated resource loss was 14044 t by weight and 11000 million in number. From the fishery resource conservation and sustainability point of view, the magnitude of resource damage due to trawl bycatch is alarmingly increasing. The study recommends using trawl nets with 35 mm square mesh codend, effort reduction in critical fishing grounds and adoption of Juvenile Fish Excluder cum Shrimp Sorting Device (JFE-SSD) which minimizes juvenile fish catch.
Cobia, Rachycentron canadum is a candidate species for aquaculture, distributed across the Indo-Pacific waters to the southern Atlantic Ocean. Information on genetic diversity and population structure of cobia is crucial for sustainable utilization and management of the species in natural waters. In the present study, we used 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (980 bp) to investigate the genetic diversity and population structuring of R. canadum along the Indian coast. Microsatellite analysis suggests a relatively high level of genetic diversity of cobia in the Indian region, with a mean Ho and He of 0.76 and 0.73. The PIC was also highly informative (0.841), with a mean no. of alleles of 11.304. Hierarchical AMOVA and genetic differentiation co-efficient between the populations was found to be low, but significant (FST = 0.035, P < 0.001), indicating fine scale structuring in the region. Pair-wise FST, neighbor-joining tree, principal coordinates analysis, and Bayesian analysis depict three populations of cobia in Indian waters: two in the Arabian Sea and one in the Bay of Bengal. The mitochondrial gene analyses showed discordant findings in comparison with microsatellite markers. However, both the markers yielded no inference of historical demographic bottleneck. Multi-modal mismatch distributions and ragged index, non-significant Tajima’s D and Fu’s FS, and L-shaped distribution pattern of the allele frequencies, indicated the lack of bottleneck events of the species in the recent past. Based on mitochondrial gene analysis, the population expansion was inferred to have occurred 0.046 Myrs ago, corresponding to the late Pleistocene.
The present study deals with the isolation and characterization of phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from Avicennia marina rhizospheric sediment, pneumatophoric sediment and non-rhizospheric sediment. The sampling was carried out in four mangrove forests of Mumbai, India. The physicochemical parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, texture, total Phosphorus (P), inorganic P, organic P, Olsen P, iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc in sediment were analysed along with the isolation and molecular characterization of PSB. Significantly, lower pH was observed in the rhizospheric sediment than in the pneumatophoric and bulk sediment. Abundance of PSB was also found in the rhizospheric zone. This was supported by other physicochemical parameters such as high organic P, Olsen P, and higher bacterial count along with low inorganic P. In this study, 8 PSB were isolated and 16S rDNA sequence revealed that all the isolates belong to the genus Bacillus. Among the PSB isolates, B. subtilis sub. spizizenii TU-B-10 showed significantly higher solubilization activity (85.8±0.0 µg P released per 108 cfu in 72 hrs). The isolates that showed higher phosphate-solubilizing potentials can be explored as phosphatic bio-fertilizer to enhance the agricultural, aquacultural and mangrove productivity.
The Indian oil Sardine, Sardinella longiceps and Goldstripe Sardinella, Sardinella gibbosa are the two commercially important, small pelagic fishes from Indian waters belonging to the family Clupeidae. Characterization of the complete mitogenome is very helpful in resolving taxonomic ambiguities and hence we characterized the complete mitogenome of S. longiceps and S. gibbosa from Indian waters. The assembled mitogenomes of S. longiceps and S. gibbosa are 16,613 and 16658 bp circles respectively, contained the 37 mitochondrial structural genes (2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, 13 protein-coding genes) with the gene order identical to that of typical vertebrates. In the phylogenetic tree, S. longiceps and S. gibbosa clustered with species belonging to the family Clupeidae. This study is the first report of the complete mitogenome of two commercially important clupeids from Indian waters which form the baseline for further studies on molecular systematics, population genetics, historic demography, adaptive variation and conservation of these species.