Indian Council of Agricultural Research


Dietary supplementation of microalgae, Aurantiochytrium sp. and co-feeding with Artemia enhances the growth, stress tolerance and survival in Penaeus monodon post larvae

In global aquaculture industry, shrimp farming plays a key role and microalgae signify a vital part. The present study focussed to analyse the influence of dietary inclusion of Aurantiochytrium sp. MBTDCMFRIJMVL1, a heterotrophic marine protist as well as co-feeding with Artemia, on the growth and survival in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The nutritive quality, with a total protein content of 54% and total fat content of 26% on dry matter basis along with good fatty acid profile and carotenoids makes Aurantiochytrium sp. a promising candidate for aquaculture nutrition. In the present study, three type of micro diets were designed (iso11-nitrogenous and isolipidic) with 50% crude protein and 8% crude fat viz., control diet (C), 1% inclusion of algae (T1) and 2% inclusion of algae (T2) and fed to the post larvae (PL) of P. monodon.


First report of substituted 2H-pyranoids from brown seaweed Turbinaria conoides with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

The organic extract of Turbinaria conoides, a brown seaweed harvested from the Gulf of Manner region of Indian peninsular was chromatographically fractionated to yield three substituted 2H-pyranoids, namely methyl-21-yl-[50, 60- dihydro-50-yl-{54-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)- oxy-(52-methylbutyl)}-30-methyl-2H-pyran]-21-methyl butanoate (1), 11-[(30, 60-dihydro-40-methyl-20-oxo-2H-pyran-30-yl)methyl]-10- methylhexyl benzoate (2), and [6-ethyl-3,4-dimethyl-(tetrahydro-20, 20, 60-trimethyl-2H-pyran-30-yl)-2,5-cycloheptadiene]-1-propanoate (3). The compounds 1 and 2 bearing 2H-pyranyl-4-hydroxybenzoyl and 2H-pyranyl-10-methylhexylbenzoate moieties exhibited potential antioxidant activities (IC50 0.54-0.69mg mL?1) as commercial antioxidant (a-tocopherol IC50 0.63-0.73mg mL?1). Likewise, potential bioactivity of the 2H-pyran derivative, 1 against 5-lipoxygenase (IC50 ? 1mg mL?1) along with higher index of selectivity (COX-1 inhibitoryIC50/COX-2 inhibitoryIC50 1.88) indicated their selective antiinflammatory properties against inducible inflammatory mediators than that displayed by commercially available non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (ibuprofen, 0.44). Structure activity relationship analysis of the studied compounds showed that the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties were directly proportional to their electronic properties. The previously undescribed 2H-pyranoids might constitute as potential antioxidative and anti-inflammatory pharmacophores for medicinal applications.


First report of antioxidative 2H-chromenyl derivatives from the intertidal red seaweed Gracilaria salicornia as potential anti-inflammatory agents

Phytochemical investigation on biologically active compounds of an intertidal red seaweed Gracilaria salicornia (family Gracilariaceae) guided to the separation of two previously undisclosed 2H-chromenyl derivatives. The compounds were characterised as 40-[100-[7-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-6-(pentyloxy)- 2H-chromen-2-yl]ethyl]-30,40-dimethyl-cyclohexanone (1) and 30-[100-(8-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2,6,7-trimethyl-2H-chromen- 2-yl)ethyl]-30-methyl-20-methylene cyclohexyl butyrate (2) by extensive spectroscopic experiments. The studied metabolites recorded prospective bioactivities against 5-lipoxygenase (IC50<2.50mM), whereas their selectivity indices were significantly greater (?1) than ibuprofen (0.89) (p<0.05), which attributed higher anti-inflammatory selectivity of 2Hchromenyl compounds against inducible cyclooxygenase-2 than its constitutive pro-inflammatory isoform of cyclooxygenase- 1. The radical scavenging potential of 2 against oxidants, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,20-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid were higher (IC50< 1.35mM) than standard antioxidant, a-tocopherol (IC50 1.42- 1.79mM). The greater hydrogen bond interactions and binding affinity of 2 (?7.35 kcal mol?1) bearing 2H-chromenyl ethyl-30-methyl-40-methylenecyclohexyl butyrate moiety with 5-lipoxygenase, along with higher electronic properties and permissible hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance, manifested towards its greater anti-inflammatory activity than 1.


Biodegradation of the pyrethroid pesticide cyfluthrin by the halophilic bacterium Photobacterium ganghwense isolated from coral reef ecosystem

A halophilic bacterial strain T14 isolated from the mucus of coral Acropora formosa was found to be highly effective in degrading the pyrethroid pesticide, cyfluthrin. T14 was identified as Photobacterium ganghwense (GenBank Accession No. MT360254) based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics as well as by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The pyrethroid degrading efficiency of P. ganghwense T14 strain was examined under different culture conditions. It was observed that P. ganghwense T14 was able to utilise cyfluthrin as a sole carbon source and was found to grow on mineral medium with pesticide concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 mg l-1.


Stock assessment of Indian squid, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvaucelii off north Tamil Nadu coast from commercial trawl landings

Stock assessment of the Indian squid Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvaucelii off north Tamil Nadu coast from commercial trawl landings was studied during the period 2012-2016. The species is mainly caught by trawl net and the annual average landing of the species was 563.3 t contributing to 2 % to the total trawl landing along north Tamil Nadu coast. L, K and to were estimated as 260 mm, 0.84 yr-1 and -0.105 yr, respectively. Total mortality rate (Z), Natural mortality rate (M), and Fishing mortality rate (F) were 4.43 yr-1, 1.67 yr-1 and 2.78 yr-1, respectively. tmax was estimated to be 3.47 yr. The length atfirst capture (Lc50 = 62 mm) estimated by Length converted catch curve method was found to be lower than Length at first maturity (Lm50 = 80 mm). Furthermore, Ecurr (current exploitation rate) was found be on higher side than the Emax (0.48) and E0.1 (0.40) which indicates that the fishery is in overexploited stage. Thompson and Bell prediction model showed that a marginal decrease (20 %) in current level of exploitation would help in regeneration of stock for long term sustainability of the resources as well as in achieving maximized economic return.


Seasonal variations in the length-weight relationship and relative condition factor of Bombay duck, Harpadon nehereus inhabiting the marine area of the west coast of India

Harpadon nehereus (Hamilton, 1822), commercially known as Bombay duck and is locally named as Bumla or Bombil along the western coast of India. The area between northern geographical coordinates of 18° and 22° N represents intermittent fishery resources with discontinuous distribution, and the majority of the resources are caught by the dol net. The present study revealed information on 1523 specimens of Bombay duck, which were used for the analysis of lengthweight relationship (LWR), and condition factor (K) collected from various fishing villages of west coast of India during September 2014 to November 2016. The results indicated that females bear longer and heavier body sizes than males.


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