Indian Council of Agricultural Research


Laboratory rearing and breeding of spineless cuttlefish Sepiella inermis orbigny (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

The spineless cuttlefish Sepiella inermis was successfully reared from the egg mass collected from wild. They mated under captive conditions and spawned on 86th day at a size of 60mm mantle length (ML) producing 214 viable eggs. Only live food organisms, consisting of mysids, shrimp post larvae, fish larvae and small fishes and shrimps formed the diet of these animals at different stages. The initial average size of hatching was 4mm ML (0.02g) that increases to 26mm (3.19g), 48mm (16.5g), 64mm (46.48g) and 69 mm (54.67g) on 30th, 60th, 90th and 110th days respectively. Average survival was 43, 37 and 28% at the end of first, second and third months. with good water quality management and supply of required live-feed in sufficient quantity, the laboratory culture of cuttlefish is distinctly possible


Novel Furanyl-Substituted Isochromanyl Class of Anti-Inflammatory Turbinochromanone

Organic extract of the brown seaweed Turbinaria conoides (Sargassaceae) was chromatographically fractionated to yield an undescribed furanyl-substituted isochromanyl metabolite, named as turbinochromanone, which was characterized as methyl 4-[(3S)-8-{[(3R)-4-ethyl-2,3-dihydrofuran-3-yl]methyl}-1-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-2- benzopyran-3-yl]butanoate. The isochromanyl derivative possessed comparable attenuation potential against 5- lipoxygenase (IC50 3.70 ?M) with standard 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor drug zileuton (IC50 2.41 ?M). Noticeably, the index of anti-inflammatory selectivity of turbinochromanone (~1.7) was considerably greater than that exhibited by the standard agent diclofenac (1.06). Antioxidant properties of turbinochromanone against oxidants (IC50~24 ?M) further supported its potential anti-inflammatory property. Greater electronic properties (topological polar surface area of 61.8) along with comparatively lesser docking parameters of the studied compound with aminoacyl residues of targeted enzymes (cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase) (binding energy of 11.05 and 9.40 kcal mol^1, respectively) recognized its prospective anti-inflammatory potential. In an aim to develop seaweed-based natural anti-inflammatory leads, the present study isolated turbinochromanone as promising 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, which could be used for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications.


Breeding, larval rearing and growth of black Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier, 1830) under captivity

Broodstock development, breeding, spawning, larval rearing and growth of black Amphiprion ocellaris in captivity are described in this study. The black ocellaris, a magnificent colour morph of A. ocellaris was bred in captivity at Vizhinjam Research Centre of ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (ICAR-CMFRI). Two adults, approximately 4-6 cm in total length (TL) were stocked in FRP tanks of 300 l capacity, under optimum water quality. The broodfishes were fed a combination of boiled mussel meat, boiled squid and semimoist feed (protein - 40 %, lipid - 9.5 %, fibre - 2% and moisture - 31%) twice daily at a rate of 3-5% of their body weight. After a period of 1.7 years, the fishes started showing courtship behaviour and initiated spawning. The oocytes were of 3-3.3 mm in length and 1.1-1.9 mm in width. Approximately 200-300 eggs spawned the first time and the number of eggs gradually increased in subsequent spawnings. Spawning was obtained at an interval of 12-14 days providing an average of two spawnings per month. The incubation period of the eggs were 7-8 days and the fertilised eggs hatched on the 8th day, soon after sunset, generally between 19.00 and 20.00 hrs. Different strains of cultured plankton like Isochrysis galbana, Nanochloropsis oculata, L-type rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, calanoid copepod Acartia southwelli and Artemia were used as feed for larvae. The newly hatched larvae with a total length of 5±0.16 mm metamorphosed to juveniles on the 40th day (18.87±0.07 mm). Black ocellaris is a highly priced clownfish and can be used to crossbreed with the normal orange coloured ocellaris clown fish to produce different colour variants. Keywords: Black Amphiprion ocellaris, Breeding, Broodstock development, Larval Rearing, Live feed, Variants


New distributional record of greater amberjack Seriola dumerili 

The fishes of the family Carangidae forms one of the largest families of bony fishes, representing about 140 species, widely distributed in all tropical and temperate marine waters of the world. In recent past, fishes of this family are exhibiting new geographical distribution which could be attributed to climatic variability. Methods: The specimens were collected from multiday trawl boats operated along Karnataka coast. Morphometric and meristic characteristics together with genetic analysis using DNA bar coding was used to validate the identity of the specimen. Spatial distribution map of the species in Indian Ocean was generated using the information from the present study and available literature. Result: The morphometric and meristic characteristics of the specimens of greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili collected during the study were comparable with the previous investigations. The phylogenetic tree constructed using sequences of COI (MW974826 and MW974827) of the Seriola species showed distinct clustering among species with significant bootstrap values confirming the identity to the extent of 99% with the sequences of Seriola dumerili deposited in NCBI GenBank. This study confirms the first distributional record of Seriola dumerili from the eastern Arabian Sea


Sexual maturity, spawning periodicity and fecundity of obtuse barracuda Sphyraena obtusata 

The success or failure of spawning in any population affects the fishery. Hence, studies on spawning, maturation, fecundity and length at first maturity become essential in drafting management strategies. The detailed information on reproductive traits of Sphyraena obtusata will be helpful in sustainable management and conservation in the study area. Methods: Three hundred and fifty five specimens of S. obtusata were collected fortnightly from Mangaluru and Malpe fishing harbors during August 2019 to March 2020. Maturity of gonads was examined by macroscopic and histological investigations. Spawning periodicity was worked out based on maturity stages and seasonal gonadosomatic index. Gravimetric method of analysis was employed to evaluate the fecundity from randomly collected samples of gravid females. Result: Overall sex ratio revealed that the population had significantly higher (p<0.05, - 2 test) proportion of females than males. The length at 50% maturity (Lm50) for females and males was estimated at 21.1 and 21.5 cm respectively. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) and the availability of matured individuals for both the sexes in various percentage indicated a prolonged breeding period from October to March with peaks in November and December. The absolute fecundity varied from 91,942 eggs (20.0 cm TL) to 1,34,445 eggs (27.0 cm TL) with an average of 1,12,878 ± 2,984 hydrated oocytes per female


rectcyanthins A-C from marine sponge Hyrtios erectus

Bioactivity-steered chromatographic purification of the solvent extract of marine sponge Hyrtios erectus (Thorectidae) led to the isolation of three undescribed cyanthiwigin-type diterpenoids, erectcyanthins A-C. Erectcyanthin B exhibited comparable attenuation activity against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (IC50 0.07 mM) with that displayed by anti-dyslipidemic agent atorvastatin (IC50 0.08 mM). Comparatively greater antioxidant properties of erectcyanthin B (IC50 0.4 mM) than that displayed by erectcyanthin A (IC50 0.5 mM), erectcyanthin C and the standard a-tocopherol (IC50 1.5–1.7 mM) against oxidants also corroborated its promising bioactivity. Erectcyanthin B exhibited considerably greater anti-inflammatory activities (IC50 0.88–1.09 mM) than other erectcyanthin analogues in the series. The potential anti-dyslipidemic activity of erectcyanthins was linearly correlated with electronic parameter (topological polar surface area 74.6) along with balanced hydrophilic-lipophilic properties (logarithmic octanol-water partition coefficient 1.76). This study recognized the anti-dyslipidemic property of erectcyanthin B as a promising pharmaceutical lead.


Back to Top