Indian Council of Agricultural Research


New species of six-gilled hagfish (Myxinidae: Eptatretus) from the Lakshadweep Sea

A new species of hagfish, Eptatretus wadgensis sp. nov., is described from the Wadge Bank, Lakshadweep Sea, India, obtained from a depth of ~250–300 m through deep-sea trawling. It is diagnosed by having six pairs of gill pouches and gill apertures, 3/3 multicusp teeth, total slime pores 67–69, six branchial slime pores, and ventral aorta bifurcating at the 4th or between 4th and 5th gill pouch. The new species has significant morphological differences in total dental cusps, total slime pores, body proportions and the absence of the nasal-sinus papilla when compared to congeners and formed a distinct clade in phylogenetic reconstruction and a genetic distance of 3.41–4.00% when comparing K2P parameters with the nearest species. A key to the Eptatretus species of the Indian Ocean is provided.


Optimization of salinity levels for the culture of cyclopoid copepod Dioithona oculata (Farran, 1913)

Cyclopoid copepod, Dioithona oculata, is a common free-living euryhaline species in tropical and temperate waters having potential as live feed in marine fish larval rearing. Here, the effect of salinity on adult and naupliar survival, total population, population composition, clutch production, clutch size, development rate and adult longevity was investigated. Adult copepods survived the abrupt changes in salinities from 15 to 50?ppt (parts per thousand). The highest naupliar survival was at 30?ppt (86.33?±?2.84%) and the lowest at 15?ppt (12.6?±?2.34%). The highest production was at 30?ppt (883.0?±?5.5 individuals/L) and the lowest at 15?ppt (49.0?±?6.56 individuals/L). The proportion of nauplii was higher at salinities from 20 to 40?ppt, whereas the total population of copepodites and adults was significantly less at 15 and 45?ppt. The highest clutch production was observed at 30?ppt (8.6?±?0.54 clutches) and the lowest at 45?ppt (2.6?±?0.54 clutches). Maximum clutch size of D. 


Histological observations on the oocyte development in the Picnic seabream, Acanthopagrus berda

Histological analysis was carried out on ovarian development in the picnic seabream, Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskål 1775) caught in the estuarine waters of Calicut, Kerala, India from January to December 2016. Four developmental phases of oocyte development were identified viz., oogonia proliferation and transformation into the primary oocyte, primary growth phase, secondary growth phase and maturation phase and these are similar to those described for other species. The reproductive development process begins in a very young ovary with the formation of oogonia, the cells originally derived from special primordial germ cells formed early in the embryonic development; their multiplication and differentiation are followed by the release of mature oocytes. Oocyte development stages observed in A. berda were chromatin nucleolus, early perinucleolar, late perinucleolar, lipid vesicle stage I oocyte, lipid vesicle stage II oocyte, primary yolk granule stage, secondary yolk granule stage, tertiary yolk granule stage, hydrated oocyte and atretic oocyte.


Systematics of nemipterid fishes (Perciformes: Nemipteridae) of Odisha coast, north-western Bay of Bengal with first records of four species

The north-eastern coast of India is rich in marine floral and faunal biodiversity, yet relatively less studied. This study aims to review and update the species diversity of nemipterids along the north-eastern coast of India, particularly Odisha, and provide a simple key for easy identification. An ichthyofaunal survey piloted during 2017 – 2020 along the Odisha coast confirmed the occurrence of seven valid species of nemipterids namely, Nemipterus bipunctatus (Valenciennes, 1830), N. japonicus (Bloch, 1791), N. nematophorus (Bleeker, 1854), N. peronii (Valenciennes, 1830), N. randalli Russell, 1986, Parascolopsis aspinosa (Rao & Rao, 1981), and Scolopsis vosmeri (Bloch, 1792), adding four species to the previously annotated checklist of 2007. The present paper reports the first record of four species namely, N. nematophorus, N. peronii, N. randalli, and P. aspinosa from the Odisha coast in the Bay of Bengal. Based on the findings of the present study and available literature, a key to the reported and identified species of the family Nemipteridae from the Odisha coast was developed with a detailed description of taxonomic characters for easy identification.


Non-sulfated steroidal glycosides cistoindosides from marine old woman octopus Cistopus indicus attenuate pro-inflammatory lipoxygenase

Two non-sulfated steroidal glycosides, cistoindosides A-B were isolated from organic extract of the marine ‘old woman octopus’ Cistopus indicus (family Octopodidae).The anti-inflammatory properties were corroborated by the promising antioxidant activities  of these steroid glycosides. Sizeably greater electronic properties, balanced hydrophobic-lipophilic properties  and comparatively lower steric factors were directly proportional to their bioactivities. Molecular simulation studies in the active sites of 5-lipoxygenase displaying lesser binding energies and inhibition constant (Ki) of cistoindoside B could be correlated with anti-inflammatory properties. Cistoindosides could be projected for their utilization as potential bioactive leads in functional food and pharmaceutical applications.


Marine cuttlefish derived 2H benzochromenone, Pharachromenone as a dual inhibitor of pro inflammatory 5 lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase2

Cephalopod cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, has been considered as a commercially important resource, which is widely regarded as nutritious food in the southwest of Indian and Mediterranean coasts. Chemical analysis of the crude extract of S.Greater electronic parameters, lesser steric bulkiness, along with acceptable lipophilic-hydrophobic balance significantly contributed toward its promising anti-inflammatory activities.Pharachromenone could be developed as a functional food component against oxidative stress-related inflammatory disorders. pharaonis could result in the isolation of a 2H benzochromenone derivative, pharachromenone exhibiting potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study recognized the therapeutic potential of a marine cuttlefish-originated food constituent against inflammatory conditions, and could be anticipated as a high-value functional food lead to minimize oxidative stress-related inflammatory disorders.


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