Indian Council of Agricultural Research


Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of florfenicol and florfenicol amine in snubnose pompano following oral administration

The present study reports the comparative pharmacokinetic profiles of florfenicol and its metabolite (florfenicol amine, FFA) in Trachinotus blochii under tropical marine conditions (salinity: 35±1.4‰; temperature: 28.8±0.54 °C) following a single in-feed oral administration of the recommended dose (15 mg/Kg). Furthermore, the study investigated the distribution of these two compounds in nine different tissues. The maximum florfenicol concentrations (Cmax) in plasma and tissues were observed within five hours (Tmax), except for bile. The Cmax ranged from 572 to 1954 ng/g or ml and was in the intestine>bile>muscle+skin>liver>gill=heart>plasma>kidney=spleen. 


Immunomodulatory effect of sulfated galactofucan from marine macroalga Turbinaria conoides

Sulfated polysaccharides are effective immunostimulating agents by activating several intracellular signaling pathways. A sulfated (1 ? 3)/(1 ? 4)-linked galactofucan TCP-3 with promising immunomodulatory effects was purified from a marine macroalga Turbinaria conoides. The immune-enhancing potential of TCP-3 (100–400 mg/kg BW) was evaluated on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed animals by increasing bone marrow cellularity (10–13 cells/femur/mL x 106), ?-esterase activity (1200–1700 number of positive cells/4000 BMC), interferon-? (1.31–1.49 pg/mL), interleukin-2 (3.49–3.99 pg/mL) secretion, and WBC count (> 3000 cells/cu mm). The proliferation of lymphocytes for in vitro and in vivo conditions was enhanced by administering TCP-3 besides regulating the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6/1?/12, tumor necrosis factor-?, transforming growth factor-?), and an inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase.


Assessment of biosafety and fillet-residues After florfenicol exposures in Trachinotus blochii to ensure safe applications in disease incidences

Trachinotus blochii is a promising mariculture fish species. Scientific data on biosafety and fillet residues of florfenicol exposure, one recommended amphenicol antimicrobial for aquaculture use, remains unknown in T. blochii, despite its criticality for prudent application. Accordingly, the paper evaluated the safety (regarding mortality, symptoms, weight gain, and histopathology) of dietary florfenicol after therapeutic (10 mg Kg-1 for ten days) and excessive (three, five, and ten times the therapeutic dose for 10, 20, and 30 days) exposures. There was no mortality in any group. The clinical abnormalities were noted only in 10X group from the 25th exposure day, which disappeared on the fourth day after withdrawal. Reduced growth was recorded at 5X and 10X groups from 20 and 30 exposure days, respectively.


Effects of salinity on survival, reproductive performance, population growth, and life stage composition in the calanoid copepod Acartia bilobata

Copepods are a critical live prey item for most marine finfish larvae in the natural environment. The calanoid copepod belonging to species Acartia is a potential live food for the larval rearing of marine finfishes because of their higher productivity and tolerance to wide range of salinities. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of salinity on production parameters to standardize the optimal salinity for Acartia bilobata culture. For selecting the optimal salinity range, the adult copepods were exposed to abrupt salinity change from 30 g L?1 to ten salinity levels, including 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 g L?1 and their survival estimated after 24 h. Further, the effect of salinity (15, 20,25,30, and 35 g L?1) on egg production, hatching success and population growth were studied. 


Red sea bream iridovirus infection in cage farmed Asian sea bass : Insights into the pathology, epizootiology, and genetic diversity

Red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) is an emerging viral pathogen having significant socio-economic and environmental impacts on marine and brackish aquaculture systems. The study documents certain interesting findings of an RSIV disease outbreak that caused 50% cumulative mortality among cage farmed Asian sea bass in India. The confirmatory diagnosis was made based on internationally approved protocols. The affected fish showed splenomegaly, anaemia, and abnormally enlarged cells within the spleen, liver, kidney, and brain. The consistent presence of two fish pathogens, viz., Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio fluvialis, in the liver, along with characteristic vibrio-induced pathologies were noted, indicating the possible role of these bacterial pathogens in RSIV pathogenesis during the outbreak. More strikingly, the surviving fish were found to carry the virus even after two months post-outbreak, warranting future investigations on the carrier status of RSIV survivors.


Sustainable intensification of small scale mariculture systems: Farm level insights from the coastal regions of India

The Principles-Criteria-Indicators (PCI) approach is used to establish the linkage between identified farm-level indicators and various dimensions of sustainability. While the selected enterprises were assessed to be technically and economically viable in general, glaring gaps were evident on key indicators of sustainability such as the legitimacy of access over water bodies, use of quality seed and feed, institutional credit access, market access, and fair marketing practices, optimal stocking density, mechanization, use of renewable energy, adoption of environmental-friendly culture practices, farm surveillance, crew safety, and social protection.


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