Indian Council of Agricultural Research


Technology transfer, adoption and performance evaluation of pearl culture technology

ICAR-CMFRI has developed technologies for breeding and seed production of many commercially important molluscs. One such is the marine pearl culture technology. The technology has been developed way back in 1973, pearl culture was undertaken by the fishers of Veppalodai, Thoothukudi district under the guidance of ICAR-CMFRI and established the interest and farming skill by producing quality pearls. Subsequently many aspects of pearl oyster resources were studied in detail by various researchers and a rich knowledge was obtained on the subject. The technology developed by ICAR-CMFRI has been transferred to various State government, private and joint ventures in Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh. Partial technology transfer to fisherfolks of Mundalmunai village, Mandapam through financial support of M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF, Chennai) and good amount of pearls were produced but, due to non sustenance of funding it couldn’t continue beyond the project period. At this juncture the current programme was implemented in three different centres viz., Kollam (Kerala), Kalpeni (Lakshadweep islands) and Sippikulam, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu with an aim of training and total transferring of the technology of image (‘mabe’) and spherical pearl production to the fishers and empower them in marine pearl culture production technology. In this paper an attempt is made to detail the experience and results of adoption of village/SHG’s respectively, feasibility study for pearl culture using Indian pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, development of infrastructure, training imparted, skill evaluation and the Available online at: doi: 10.6024/jmbai.2018.60.1.2027-06 results of independent pearl culture by the beneficiaries at the respective centre/SHG. The trained group at Sippikulam, Thoothukudi was capable of producing 4.4-7.7% commercial grade spherical pearls, the SHG’s at Kollam and Kalpeni centres developed expertise and produced 15-20% good quality ‘mabe’ pearl. As an encouragement/proof, the product was given to the team concerned. A project proposal was also prepared for the follow up and continuance of the culture with State Fisheries Department for funding was handed over to the group. Strong linkage was developed by liaisoning the groups with the State Department Officials of the respective centre for further follow up. The success of the implementation of the project at the three centres was evaluated by seven indicators.


Range extension of striped triggerfish, Xanthichthys lineopunctatus in eastern Indian Ocean

A single specimen of Xanthichthys lineopunctatus (187 mm SL and weight 212 gm) was obtained from trawl net operated at depth range of 40-50 m off Visakhapatnam and landed at Visakhapatnam Fisheries Harbour on 20th July 2016. It is reported for the first time from the east coast of India, Bay of Bengal. Earlier it was recorded from the south west coast of India, Arabian Sea and from the Indo-West Pacific. This report of Xanthichthys lineopunctatus in the Bay of Bengal extends its geographic distribution within the Indian Ocean.


Fishery, biology and stock status of Priacanthus hamrur exploited off Kerala coast

The present paper attempts to describe the fishery of priacanthids along Kerala coast during 2007-15, along with insights into certain aspects of the biology and stock status of the dominant species Priacanthus hamrur which formed more than 80% of the priacanthids landed during this period. The length-weight relationship estimated show that there is no significant difference in b values of male and female and the equation derived for sexes pooled W = 0.000047038 L2.76. Sex ratio revealed dominance of females over males (1:1.5). Spawning season of P. hamrur was from June to October with a peak in August. Growth parameters estimated were, L?=404.25 mm, K=0.58 year-1 t0=-0.1370. Total mortality estimated was Z=3.70, natural mortality M=1.13 and fishing mortality F=2.57. The exploitation rate (E) of P. hamrur in Kerala coast was estimated at 0.69 which is above the optimum level.


Conservation of seagrass beds with special reference to associated species and fishery resources

The southeast coast of India bordering Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay has luxuriant growth of seagrass beds which sustain good fisheries and is a biodiversity hotspot. Many fishers living along the coast depend on these resources for their livelihood. Several species of invertebrates and vertebrates fully depend on the seagrass resources for their survival and sustenance. In this paper, the diversity of species commonly associated with the seagrass beds and their present status is presented followed by the fisheries associated with this ecosystem. The type of fishing activities including the details of crafts, gears, number of fishers involved and catch statistics are presented. The main objective of this approach is to understand how the fishing activities influence the ecosystem and fishermen. Underwater monitoring and visual observations were documented through photographs and videos. Artisanal fishing activities such as bottom set gillnet, push net, lead-fish trap net and shore seine are in detail discussed and the conservation measures which are urgently required are also presented.


Distribution and species diversity of phytoplankton in inshore waters of Tuticorin in relation to physicochemical variables

A study was conducted to evaluate the phytoplankton community structure and its relationship with selected physicochemical variables in the inshore waters of Tuticorin during January to December 2008. Water and plankton samples from the surface waters at two depths (5m and 10m) were collected on board the research vessel Cadalmin-IV. Standard methods were followed for phytoplankton identification, enumeration and estimation of physicochemical variables. The present study recorded 69 species of phytoplankton with 85.5% dominance of diatoms followed by 14.5% of dinoflagellates. The overall density of phytoplankton was comparatively higher at 10 m with a mean of 2.14x104 ±0.4x104 cells L-1 and 3.37x104 ±0.9x104 cells L-1 at 5 m and 10 m depth respectively. The analysis indicated that 10 m depth, especially during the monsoon season, is rich in diversity of algal species than at the same depth during post-monsoon. It is confirmed that the population density of phytoplankton is more influenced by seasonal fluctuation of the physicochemical variables especially due to the effect of northeast monsoon in the inshore waters of Tuticorin.


Economic analysis of hook and line fishery of Thiruvananthapuram coast, Kerala

Hook and line fishing has been used for the last two decades along the Vizhinjam Coast targeting mainly tunas especially bullet tuna. The fishing methodology is in use for more than several decades, but systematic study in relation to the modifications in fishing practice and its impact on the improvement in catch and income generation of fishermen has not yet been done. This paper aims to bring out the modifications in the gear/ craft and area of operation of line fishery and its impact on the income generation of fishers in the Vizhinjam Coast.


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