The potential fishing zone (PFZ) advisories for north Andhra Pradesh coast from Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Hyderabad, were analyzed year-wise for 2 years 2012–2013 (January to December) for frequency of its occurrences at different depths. Grid-wise plotting of PFZs showed that high and very high frequency grids were less abundant in near-shore coastal regions. The plotting also revealed that of the three zones compared, continental slope area, which is beyond 100 m depth, is having the maximum number of very high frequency hit grids, followed by mid-continental shelf area which is between 50 and 100 m depth. It is also noted that a trend of frequency of occurrence of PFZs is on the rise as the depth increases up to 200 m and further, the frequencies started decreasing. There is also an increasing trend in the frequency of occurrence of PFZs as we are moving towards the higher latitudes from Kakinada waters to Kalingapatnam waters.
Tropical and subtropical climatic conditions in India present an ideal and unique opportunity for being the leader in tropical marine finfish aquaculture. However, the problem persist due to non-availability of marine finfish seed for the culture. In response to this problem, broodstock development of different tropical marine finfishes for seed production was started. The present study was undertaken to design a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) and studying their performance in managing the various water quality required for the marine finfish broodstock development and breeding. The design of RAS, developed in the present study, included a broodstock tank, egg collection chamber, electrical pump, rapid sand filter, venturi type protein skimmer and biological filter. Two RAS were designed, one was stocked with a demersal fish species, orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and the other was stocked with a pelagic fish species, Indian pompano (Trachinotus mookalee) at the rate 1 and 0.5?kg/m3 with a sex ratio of 1:1 and 1:2 (female: male) respectively. Various physio-chemical parameters, viz, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrite, nitrate, pH, alkalinity, temperature, free carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved oxygen (DO) of both tank water were analyzed to assess the performance of recirculating aquaculture system in maintaining the water quality. Gonadal development of the fishes was assessed and the spawning performance was recorded and finally, economic performance of the system was also evaluated. During the entire experimental period, mean monthly total ammonia nitrogen was less than 0.07 and 0.06?mg?L?1 and mean monthly nitrite was less than 0.02 and 0.01?mg?L?1 in orange spotted grouper and Indian pompano RAS tanks respectively. The pH (7.8–8.2), DO (>4?mg/L) and alkalinity (100–120?mg/L) were found to be in optimum range in both recirculating aquaculture systems. Carbon dioxide was found to be nil during the entire experimental period in both the systems. In fact these levels were comparable or less than that is reported as the permissible limits for broodstock development. Indian pompano and Orange spotted grouper matured and spawning was obtained with production of fertilized eggs round the year. Economic evaluation showed the price of 10,000 fertilized eggs of orange spotted grouper to be US $ 1.33. The design of RAS devised in the present study is efficient in controlling and maintaining optimum water quality for broodstock development of both demersal and pelagic finfishes. The fishes stocked in RAS attained final maturation and round the year spawning was obtained.
Here we report a new record of the caridean shrimp Lysmatella prima Borradaile, 1915 in the Arabian Sea off southwest coast of India. L. prima is the only known species under the genus Lysmatella (Borradaile, 1915). The species was recorded a century back from the Andaman Sea, Bay of Bengal. During a survey in our research vessel, a single specimen obtained from a depth of 30 m (9o25’72” N 76o12’77” E) is described and illustrated with photographs. This record extends the known distribution of the species in the Indo Pacific region.
Two previously unreported xenicane class of novaxenicin-type xenicin diterpenoids (1–2) bearing cyclonona[d]furo [2,3-b]pyrandiol and three xeniolide-type diterpenoids with unprecedented octahydrocyclonona[c]pyran-3(1H)-one backbones (3–5) were separated from the organic extract of the intertidal seaweed Padina tetrastomatica (family Dictyotaceae), collected from southern India. The compounds were deduced to bear a xenicane moiety with a 2-oxabicyclo[7.4.0]tridecane cyclic system. The structures of these specialized metabolites were attributed based on the extensive nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses, and comparison of related compounds. Xeniolide-type diterpenes (3–5) registered significantly greater attenuation potential against pro-inflammatory 5-lipoxygenase (IC50?~?2.04?mM) than that exhibited by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IC50 4.50?mM, P<?0.05). The xeniolide derivative octahydro-1,7-dihydroxy-4-(41-hydroxy-42-methylpropyl)-6-(61-hydroxy-62-propenyl)-10-methyl-cyclonona[c]pyran-3(1H)-one (5) exhibited comparable antioxidant activity (DPPH IC50 1.73?mM) along with standard antioxidative agent ?-tocopherol (IC50?<?2?mM). In silico molecular modelling studies were performed to designate the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory mechanism of the xenicanes, and the comparison of docking parameters suggested that the xeniolide derivative 5 exhibited least binding energy of ?11.56?kcal?mol?1, and that was corroborated with its greater inhibition potential against the pro-inflammatory enzyme. These results demonstrated that the xeniolide-type diterpenoids with previously unreported ?-lactone cyclononane framework might constitute promising anti-inflammatory leads with pro-inflammatory 5-lipoxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities.
Data on potential fishing zones (PFZ), obtained from the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), Hyderabad, and advisories for North Andhra coast were segregated season wise and analyzed to understand the trends and the frequency of occurrences of PFZ in North Andhra coast. Plotting of data revealed location of PFZ near coastal regions during summer months. These zones moved towards deeper waters during pre-monsoon, expanding to a larger area as the monsoon progressed and moved north during post-monsoon season. Plotting also revealed that Kakinada waters have frequent PFZ hits especially nearer to the Kakinada bay. Visakhapatnam waters were observed to get high intensity of PFZ hits during Monsoon followed by those during post-monsoon and summer seasons. However in Kalingapatnam waters, high intensity of PFZ occurred during post-monsoon followed by monsoon and summer seasons.
The deep water penaeoid shrimp is an important commercial crustacean resource along the Indian coast. The molecular and morphological information of this group from the Indian coast is scarcely known. In this study, we investigated the identification and phylogenetic relationships of the deep water penaeoid shrimps using three mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome b, 16S rRNA) genes, which were compared with 54 morphological characters and further used to evaluate character evolution. Our study revealed remarkable molecular divergence (3.3–33.0%) in nine species from three genera of Solenoceridae, four species from three genera of Penaeidae and one species from Aristeidae using COI. Phylogenetic analysis using maximumlikelihood and Bayesian approaches revealed that all species from these families are monophyletic. The present analysis revealed the existence of subgroups in the genus Solenocera suggesting the slow reduction of postrostral carina which corresponds to the increase in distributional depth during the evolutionary process which further indicates the origin of the genus in the continental shelf and extending up to the continental slope. In addition, we generated the DNA barcode database involving these species which can help further to investigate the detailed evolution and biogeography of these valuable crustacean resources.