An experiment was conducted to evaluate the biochemical changes and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile Panulirus homarus lobsters kept under three different feeding regimes, namely starvation, feeding with live clam and feeding with formulated feeds. A marked reduction in the hepatosomatic index (HSI) and a decrease in levels of both protein and lipid in the hepatopancreas of starved animals were observed at the end of the trial. Results indicate that hepatopancreas forms the primary organ for mobilization of energy reserves and that both proteins and lipids are mobilized as energy sources during starvation. Starvation induced a significant increase in proteolytic digestive enzymes of the hepatopancreas. In the group fed on formulated diet, amylase activity was found to be high, probably in response to the high carbohydrate content of the feed used in the present study. These animals also had a significantly lower free amino acid content in the hepatopancreas Histological studies showed that feeding with formulated diet-induced vacuolation in the hepatopancreas caused by hypertrophy of B cells, and a distinct thickening of the lumen walls. These results suggest difficulty in metabolism and mobilization of nutrients absorbed from formulated feeds in tropical spiny lobsters.
This paper confirms the new distributional records of four rare deep-water chondrichthyans viz. sharpnose sevengill shark, Heptranchias perlo (Bonnaterre, 1788); bluntnose sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus (Bonnaterre, 1788); bramble shark, Echinorhinus brucus (Bonnaterre, 1788); and sicklefin chimaera, Neoharriotta pinnata (Schnakenbeck, 1931) from the Andaman waters in the Indian EEZ. The above-mentioned four fish species have not been reported earlier from this region. More exploratory surveys in the region are essential to understand the diversity and distribution pattern which is essential for critical management actions. An updated checklist of chondrichthyans known from Andaman and Nicobar waters of India is also presented.
A single abnormally pigmented leucistic fish was collected from commercial fish catch from off Bay of Bengal, east coast of India. Using morphometric and DNA barcoding analysis, the fish species was identified as narrow barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson). The standard length of the fish was 130 cm and weight was 1600 g. Mitochondrial COI gene sequence search of the leucistic fish specimen showed more similarity towards the species Scomberomorus commerson in the scombroid fish group. This is the first report confirm the species narrow barred Spanish mackerel with leucism from the region and is probably caused by random genetic alterations.
A study was conducted during the period January to December 2013 to assess the habitat and season wise variation in the density and diversity of coastal avian fauna of Tuticorin coast. Data were collected on a bi-monthly basis during the low tide and high tides at two artificial habitats like fly ash-laden dyke of Tuticorin Thermal Power Station (TTPS) and an evaporation pond of a salt pan. The diversity and density of coastal birds were comparatively higher at TTPS dyke than the salt pan pond. 12 species of coastal birds with a total count of 5111 individuals were sighted at TTPS dyke whereas ten species with a total number of 784 birds were reported from salt pan. Lesser Crested Tern was the most frequently observed bird with a mean density of 198.1±71.2 ind.count-1 at the TTPS dyke whereas Curlew Sand Piper was the dominant bird with a mean density of 20.42±4.7 ind.count-1 at the salt pan. Both the seasonal and tidal variation in the density of coastal birds sighted at two stations were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Because of the increased diminishing of natural wetland habitats in Tuticorin due to industrialisation, the study indicated the suitability of artificial habitats either for feeding or roosting of coastal birds in the region.
Anesthetized fish transport is creating new opportunities for aquaculture, as it offers ease of handling and reduction of stress and helps to reduce mortality rates. In this study, 2-phenoxyethanol was administered to Striped Mullet (Mugil cephalus) (Linnaeus, 1758) to determine its effects on the ease of handling and transportation. Four dosage levels were tested—100, 200, 300 and 400 mg l-1. Three levels of induction and three of recovery were recorded. The lowest effective concentration was 300 mg l-1. At this dosage, the time required to achieve the final stage of induction was 159±13 s (mean ± SD) and that to achieve the final stage of recovery was 193±16s. These times are significantly different from those for the other dosages.
Internationally, marine spatial planning (MSP) is an integral part of the decision-making protocol for setting up activities in the marine zone, be it the establishment of industries, exploration and mining for oil and minerals, deciding of surface transport, ensuring national security, exploitation of living and non-living resources, or conservation and management of resources and ecosystems. Satellite-based technologies like remote sensing and geographic information system are two powerful tools that provide a common platform to present information on different activities from the marine zone. This would enable the planners and policymakers to interpret the interaction between various factors and derive judicious decisions on the allocation of space and resources to different segments or activities in marine zone. This article reviews how MSP is being used as a decisionsupport tool in various countries for the peaceful coexistence of different stakeholders in the marine zone. It also discusses initiatives in India along with a reminder on the responsibility of the country as a signatory of international organizations to give importance on developing MSP for the conservation of resources as well as marine ecosystems.