Observations in fisheries sciences related to climate change foresee a future with intensified climate change as a consequence of increased greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere because of human activities. The increase in GHGs has resulted in warming of climate systems or global warming. In last 100 years, ending in 2005, the average global air temperature near the earth’s surface has been estimated to increase at the rate of 0.74 ± 0.18°C (1.33 ± 0.32°F) (IPCC, 2007). In the latest IPCC report (IPCC, 2014), climate model projections indicated that the global surface temperature during the 21st century is likely to rise a further 0.3 to 1.7°C (0.5 to 3.1°F) for their lowest emissions scenario and 2.6 to 4.8°C (4.7 to 8.6°F) for the highest emissions scenario. In the past, 15 of the 16 warmest years have occurred since 2001 and rank among the 15 warmest years in the instrumental record of global surface temperature since 1850. Climate change and associated warming is increasingly being felt in many parts of the globe including India. Climate change is predicted to lead to adverse, irreversible impacts on the earth and the ecosystem as a whole. Although it is difficult to connect specific weather events to climate change, increases in global temperature has been predicted to cause broader changes, including glacial retreat, arctic shrinkage and worldwide sea level rise (Mohanty et al., 2010).The Chaliyar river is one of the west flowing rivers of Western Ghats. It has many tributaries such as Karimpuzha. Punnappuzha, Kuruvanpuzha, Tiruanchipuzha, Cherupuzha. etc. with a catchment area of 1535 sq. km. The total discharge of the river is 7775 Mm3, The river which was in a pristine condition before 4 to 5 decades has become highly degraded in the lower stretches by the effluents of Gwalior Rayons and in the upper stretches by various anthropogenic factors like deforestation, high siltation, dynamite fishing and use of copper sulphate for fishing. During the summer months, the water in the river is very low due to high run off during the wet months.
The fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum is reported as a protandrous hermaphrodite from Australian waters, while being a gonochorist in reports from Singapore and India, with a single report of protandrous hermaphroditism from the latter. Histological analysis of gonads of fish from Indian waters confirms protandrous hermaphroditism in E. tetradactylum. The study was based on 480 fish examined from eight locations along the Indian coast. Mean total length (LT) of male fish was 240mm with the transition to female starting from 280mm LT. Specimens confirmed as mature females were> 380mm LT.
Cultivated microalgae are an essential source of nutrition to several farmed finfish, shellfish and many other commercially significant aquaculture species. Knowledge of microalgaeassociated microhabitat is important for the development of a successful, pathogen-free hatchery rearing system. Therefore, an attempt was made to isolate (1), characterise (2) and determine the phylogenetic diversity of (3) bacteria associated with cultured microalgae, which are used as live feeds in many finfish and shellfish hatcheries. From 10 selected microalgal cultures, 34 bacterial isolates were obtained with total bacterial counts of 101 to 105 CFU ml−1. Most notably, we checked the presence of Vibrio spp., the major aquaculture pathogen in all tested microalgae and their absence suggests the suitability of these microalgae for use in aquaculture systems. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the bacterial phylotypes associated with these microalgae were affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia classes. The genus Marinobacter (47%) was found to be the most predominant cultivable bacterium followed by Alteromonas, Labrenzia, Oceanicaulis, Ponticoccus, Stappia and Rheinheimera. Bacteria belonging to the genera Gaetbulibacter and Maritalea were also detected and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of association of these bacterial groups with microalgae. The biochemical, enzymatic and antibacterial characteristics and tolerance to various abiotic stress factors of these bacterial isolates are also described in the present paper. Altogether, the present study gives an insight into the phycosphere of cultivated microalgae, which can be further explored for improving the productivity and reliability of indoor and outdoor microalgal culture systems.
Explantation and trypsinisation methods for tissue dissociation were attempted for the establishment of primary cell cultures from the caerulean damsel, Pomacentrus caeruleus. Among the tissues taken, fin, liver and caudal peduncle showed good attachment with emergence of cells. The cells were best suited to grow in Leibovitz’s L-15 basal medium supplemented with foetal bovine serum (initially 20 % which was later reduced to 5–10 % during subsequent passages) at an ambient temperature of 28 ± 2 C and pH 7.2 ± 0.2. These cultures persisted at temperatures from 17 to 32 C, and proliferated at temperatures from 24 to 30 C. The cells have been cryopreserved successfully with a survival rate of 80 %. Results suggest that fin, caudal peduncle and liver cell cultures have potential for development into cell lines.
Anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethyl acetate-methanol extracts of cephalopods namely, Amphioctopus marginatus, Urothethis duvauceli, Sepia pharaonis, Sepiella inermis, and Cistopus indicus were evaluated. The ethyl acetate-methanol extracts of C. indicus exhibited significantly greater (p < 0.05) cyclooxygenase inhibition activities (IC90 ~ 1 mg/mL, respectively) compared to other cephalopod species. Likewise, C. indicus displayed greater 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (IC90 1.69 mg/ mL) compared to the other cephalopod species (IC90 > 2 mg/mL) considered in the present study. The solvent extracts derived from the members of the order Octopoda demonstrated fairly good α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC90 ≤ 2.5 mg/mL). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitory activity of the ethyl acetate-methanol extract of C. indicus was found to be significantly greater (IC50 2.51 mg/mL) than other species of cephalopods (IC50 3.4–5.4 mg/mL; p < 0.05). The labeling of protons associated with different magnetic environments of the functional groups exhibited in the ethyl acetatemethanol extracts were analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that supported the in vitro anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory results. The ethyl acetate-methanol extract of C. indicus and S. inermis displayed greater proton integrals (ΣH) of highly electronegative moieties appeared in the low-field region in the proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra (C. indicus ΣHδ3.5–4.5 5.34, ΣHδ4.5–6.5 6.41; S. inermis ΣHδ3.5–4.5 6.52, and ΣHδ4.5–6.5 15.39) than other cephalopod species. A significant co-linearity was found between the electronegative groups present in the downfield position of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra vis-à-vis anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities.
Inflation in general and food inflation in particular greatly affects the poor as they spend a large share of their income on food. Analysis of food inflation helps to develop strategies for improving the supply- demand situation. The inflation in marine fish prices were analyzed by developing an aggregate marine fish price index based on the ex-vessel prices of 22 marine fish groups for the period 1995-2014. The growth in landings and value of marine fish in India for the period 1995 to 2014 was also analyzed using compound annual growth rates. The aggregate price index showed the highest increase during 2005-2014 period (129.42%) when compared to 1995-2004 period (106.16%). The compound annual growth rate of marine fish landings was 0.68 % during 1995-2004 period and 5.43 % during 2005-2014 period. The gross value of marine fish deflated based on wholesale price indices (WPI) showed that the growth in real values of marine fish was higher during 2005- 2014 period when compared to 1995-2004 period.